What is the historical background of the recent "Fractal Frenzy" in Junk DNA?


It is all about Geometry of Nature.
First, of Geos, the Universe, then the Brain ... and now the DNA.

Actually, the story of "Geometry" is at least 2500 years long, with the last 200 years increasingly accelerating. The last chapters became even "hurried" under the extraordinary pressures; going for nuclear energy, computational ballistics, information geometry of brain function, control of fighter jets by neural nets - and recently escalated for personalized medicine

569 BC - 475 BC
Pythagoras.
Theorem of Pythagoras'
Greek "Geometer", Samos, Ionia
Distance measure in flat geometries (e.g. a surface) is x2 + y2 = d2
(Theorem of Pythagoras' - middle school today)

324 - 265 BC
Euclid (Elements).
Mathematical Language of Nature by Euclidean "Geo-Metry" is over 2000 years old.
Measured land (flat 2-dimensional surfaces of Geos) in Egypt (Alexandria).

1596 - 1650
Descartes
associates Brain Function with internal representation in Euclidean Geometry

1642 - 11727
Isaac Newton
establishes physics and mechanics based on Euclidean Geometry

------------------ FIRST "BIFURCATION" - BREAKING AWAY FROM EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRIES -----------

1775-1856
Farkas Bolyai
and his son
1802-1860
János Bolyai and
1777-1855
Johann Gauss
collectively establish the hard mathematical core, that "Alternative Geometries" to Euclidean axioms are equally possible

------------------ SECOND "BIFURCATION" - NON-DIFFERENTIABLE GEOMETRIES APPEAR, -----------

1831-1889
duBois Reymond
blows open the field by proving continuous nondifferentiable function constructed by Weierstrass

1845-1918
Cantor
set theory - an early predecessor of self-similarity theories - a core notion to later "fractals"

------------------ THIRD "BIFURCATION" - CURVED GEOMETRY OF SPACETIME MANIFOLD TO SERVE PHYSICS OF UNIVERSE-----------

1864-1907
Minkowski
established that space and time form a 4-dimensional manifold with a unified geometry. Euclidean separable x,y,z and t are blown away

1868-1942
Hausdorff
-dimension gave quantitative measure of non-integer dimension.

1875-1941
Lebesgue
contributes with the "Lebesgue measure"

1902-1950
Zipf
, with "Zipf's law" lays the rules of repetition

1904
Koch
-curve, the cardinally simple graph, based on recursive instructions

1879-1955
Albert Einstein
established that the metric tensor of the spacetime continuum is not uniform, the spacetime manifold is curved

------------------ FOURTH "BIFURCATION" - QUANTUM MECHANICS TAKES OFF TO SERVE NUCLEAR PHYSICS-----------

1901-1976
Heisenberg
1887-1961 Schrödinger
Establish quantum-mechanics, deviating from smooth-differentiable manifolds to generate the intrinsic mathematics for nuclear physics

1955
Shannon information theorist deciphers military encryption

1955
Johnny von Neumann
, done with von Neumann Algebra, declares that the intrinsic mathematics of brain function is unknown

------------------ FIFTH "BIFURCATION" - DISCOVERY OF DOUBLE HELIX IMPLIES THAT "HELIXO"-METRY WILL BE NECESSITATED, AS EUCLIDEAN "GEO"-METRY IS UNLIKELY TO SUFFICE FOR DNA-----------

1953
Francis Crick and James Watson
discover the extrinsic geometry of the Genome: the Double Helix. Have the book with all ACTG letters. What does it say? In what language? Where is the code-book? What is the encryption-algorithm? Francis Crick turns later to Neural Networks for some answers.

1977
Genentech, inc
. is incorporated in Silicon Valley. Going for the "silver bullets" of medicine, just like starting to build a thermonuclear bomb before the physics is done. The pressure is "on".

1975-1977
Fractal Geometry of Nature
Prof. Benoit Mandelbrot's classic book, coining the term "fractal", establishing fractal art, and hinting that neurons might be fractal-like

1987
Pellionisz
establishes that the Sensorimotor Neural Networks (such as the Cerebellum) embedd the external Minkowski space-time into multidimensional (overcomplete) neural manifolds with grossly non-Euclidean metric tensor.

1989
Pellionisz
establishes that neurons of the brain (the Purkinje cell of the cerebellum) is best modelled by Fractal Geometry.

2002
Pellionisz
submits USA Patent Application (FractoGene), claiming applications on causal relationship between the DNA coding in terms of Fractal Geometry the living organisms with Fractal Structuro-functional properties.


Best "Fractal Hub"

WWW.FRACTAL.ORG
Jules Ruis' amazingly comprehensive "hub" of fractals


Junk DNA and Fractal Centers

HelixoMetry, Inc, FractoGene (Patent Pending), Silicon Valley, USA (Dr. András Pellionisz)

The Hunt Laboratory, UC San Francisco, USA (Dr. Anthony Hunt)

Haplomics, Inc., Australia (Dr. Malcolm J. Simons)

Fractal EU Competence Centre, The Netherlands, West Europe (Dr. Jules Ruis)


More Fractal Links

Topology and geometry of fractals
An excellent mathematical perspective on applications of fractals by Michael Barnsley

Thomas Marsh and Jan Hubicka
Great art gallery, 2D and 3D, animations

Fractal data compression
Michael Barnsley: on hitherto the far most useful application of fractal geometry

A slew of "classic fractal leaders" - together
Peitgen's beautiful collection of fractal art from leaders of fractals

Complex adaptive systems.
A fantastic collection or classic fractal books, Chaos, Fractals, Nanotechnology, Fractal art

Fractal Links
A very comprehensive collection of fractal links - Persons and Institutions

[please e-mail to recommend missing items]